Symptoms of appendicitis in adults
Appendicitis is the most common abdominal pathology that requires surgical treatment. The vast majority of cases of the disease occur in people aged 10 to 30 years. Very rarely, appendicitis occurs in young children (up to 3% of cases). It has been established that the incidence of appendicitis is 4-5 cases per 1000 population (men and women get sick with approximately the same frequency). Since appendicitis accounts for more than 80% of acute surgical pathology of the abdominal organs, this disease is the most common cause of peritonitis.
Even Leonardo da Vinci described this disease, the inflamed process was found on autopsies, but doctors did not attach serious importance to this, since they considered the root cause of inflammation of the cecum. The first reliably described successful operation for appendicitis was performed by an English surgeon in 1735. From that moment on, the diagnosis and treatment of this disease has been constantly improved, and if a couple of hundred years ago appendicitis was a sentence for a patient, today, if detected early, it is successfully treated (in the case of non-penetrating appendicitis, the mortality rate is about 0.1%, with organ perforation – 3%).
Classification of appendicitis
Various forms of the disease are distinguished according to several criteria.
Acute appendicitis is the most common. Clinical manifestations develop quickly and are quite pronounced. Since microflora is always present in the lumen of the appendix, inflammation creates conditions for the development of purulent complications that do not take long to appear. Therefore, acute appendicitis must be operated on during the first day.
Chronic appendicitis is a rather rare form that can develop after acute inflammation. Sometimes it develops primarily. It is characterized by proliferation in the wall of the process of connective tissue and atrophy of the mucous membrane. Until now, there are disputes between scientists about whether it is possible to isolate this disease in a separate form.
There is also a separate morphological classification based on the nature of the changes occurring in the wall of the appendix.
Simple (aka catarrhal) – it accounts for the vast majority of cases of the disease.
Destructive forms are the most dangerous, since they quickly lead to a violation of the integrity of the wall of the appendix and the penetration of its contents into the abdominal cavity. A huge number of bacteria in the lumen of the organ ensures the development of severe peritonitis. In older people, mortality in this case reaches 10-15 percent.